MLB Postseason Preferences and Predictions


It’s that most wonderful time of year again: the baseball postseason. Here are my preferences and predictions.

My Preferences

As Bostonian and a Red Sox fan, I’m all in for the Red Sox going all the way this year. I especially want to see the core of young star players – Mookie Betts, Andrew Benintendi, Jackie Bradley, Jr., and Rafael Devers – win their first championship together (and Xander Bogaerts, despite his youth, winning his second). Here are the rest of my preferences from most to least:

Milwaukee Brewers – If the Red Sox fail to win, I’ll be pulling for the Brewers as they are the team that’s been around the longest without ever winning a championship.  They’d also follow the Astros as the second team to win a pennant in both leagues.

Oakland Athletics – I’ve long admired the A’s ability to play exciting, winning baseball on a tight budget, so I wouldn’t mind seeing them go all the way.

Colorado Rockies – I have no strong feelings for or against the Rockies, but since they’ve never won a World Series they rank higher rather than lower.

Chicago Cubs – After the Red Sox broke their World Series drought, it was great to see them win another  a few years later, and I suspect Cub Nation would also enjoy an overdue run of good fortune too.  Plus I have a soft spot for the team after having a good time at Wrigley Field this summer.

Houston Astros – The Astros were an exciting and deserving World Series champions last season, and I think will be the Red Sox toughest potential opposition this postseason.  Back to back championships wouldn’t be a terrible thing.

Cleveland Indians – Generally I’d root for a team that has the longest World Series drought in baseball, but I think before they win Cleveland should change their name and retire their racist logo.  Then they can win in their very first season of their new identity as the Cleveland Spiders or something.

Atlanta Braves – I still bear residual resentment against Atlanta for their 1990s-2000s dominance.  Then there’s the tomahawk chop.  Then there’s their totally unnecessary taxpayer funded ballpark in the suburbs.

Los Angeles Dodgers – The Cardinals and the Dodgers are my least favorite National League teams so really I’ll only root for the Dodgers if they end up playing my least favorite team overall, the Yankees.

New York Yankees – God forbid that the Yankees win a series, or even a game, or even score a run. Just exit early.

My Predictions

National League Wild Card Game

Chicago defeats Colorado

American League Wild Card Game

New York defeats Oakland

National League Division Series

Atlanta defeats Los Angeles, 3-1
Milwaukee defeats Chicago, 3-2

American League Division Series

Houston defeats Cleveland, 3-0
Boston defeats New York, 3-2

National League Championship Series

Atlanta defeats Milwaukee, 4-2

American League Championship Series

Boston defeats Houston, 4-2

World Series

Boston defeats Atlanta, 4-1

 

 

Major League Baseball Expansion: A 48 Team Option


Last week I wrote about the possibility of Major League Baseball adding two expansion teams and what a 32-team baseball league might look like. I proposed using expansion as an opportunity to radically change some ways that MLB is currently contested while bringing back some traditional elements.  These changes would make the regular season and postseason more fair and competitive as well as drawing more fans and increasing television ratings.

This week I will propose an even more radical change to Major League Baseball as we know it: adding 18 new teams and creating a 48-team league! In my previous post, I made a list of 25 cities that could possibly become homes to a new baseball club.  So let’s award expansion teams to Buffalo, Charlotte, Columbus, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Louisville, Mexico City, Monterrey, Montreal, Nashville, New Orleans, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Orlando, Portland, San Antonio, San Juan, and Vancouver. You may ask, how on Earth can Major League Baseball handles something as unwieldy as 48 teams in cities across North America? The answer is by creating a promotion and relegation league system.

What is a Promotion and Relegation System?

Developed in the 19th century for the English Football League, promotion and relegation originated to guarantee that the league competition by expelling the teams with worst records at the end of the season and bringing in new clubs for the next season. Eventually a pyramid of football divisions grew so that each season the top division would “relegate” its worst-performing teams the second division and “promote” the second divisions best teams to the first division. This happens between the second and third divisions, third and fourth divisions, and so on.  The promotion-relegation model is common in European sports leagues and is used in various leagues across the world except in the United States in Canada.

The reason for the lack of promotion and relegation in the United States and Canada goes back to the formation of the first professional baseball league, the National League in 1876.  While the English Football League hoped to promote competition among the best of the existing football clubs, the National League awarded franchises to a limited number of owners to create teams with exclusive territorial rights, and other sports leagues in the US and Canada have followed the same model.  No matter how poorly a team performs it will be guaranteed a spot in the league the next season (as long as the owner keeps the team financially solvent). No matter how well a team in a lower division performs, it will not gain access to the Major Leagues.

In fact, over time lower divisions became known as the Minor Leagues and were developed as a “farm system” where teams affiliated with Major League teams to develop players. Minor League games are more about watching individual players develop and on-field entertainments than winning or losing games which is rendered meaningless by the farm system. The only way Minor League cities have been able to break into the Majors is via infrequent expansions which involve hefty expansion payments to the existing teams, and little chance to develop a cohesive team before beginning play, which means expansion teams are almost universally awful in their first years. The United States is generally regarded as being the beacon of free-market capitalism, and yet while promotion-relegation leagues is a merit-based system, the closed shop of US sports leagues is akin to socialism.

Transition Period

So 18 new baseball clubs are born – and we’ll use the 18 cities I cited above in this example – now what?  To ease us into the new paradigm, lets have a five-year transition period. The current 30 MLB teams will become the MLB First Division and function pretty much as it does today with two leagues of 15 teams each arranged into 3 divisions, with a tiered playoff.  The 18 new teams would play in the MLB Second Division, likely arranged in 3 divisions of 6 teams each with their own postseason competition.

At the end of the five-year transition period, the six MLB First Division teams with the worst cumulative regular season records over those five years will be relegated to MLB Second Division. Just for this example, I determined that the six MLB teams with the worst cumulative records from the 2013 to 2017 regular seasons are the Chicago White Sox, Cincinnati, Miami, Minnesota, Philadelphia, and San Diego.  These teams will be relegated to MLB Second Division in the example below.

How a MLB Will Work With Two Divisions

We now have two divisions of 24 teams each.  Much like I proposed for the 32 team option, these teams would be aligned regionally into three leagues of 8 teams each in both divisions.  The 8 team leagues would be a shorter 154-game schedule with no interleague play.  The regional proximity within the leagues would help reduce the wear and tear of travel, encourage rivalries, increase attendance with fans of the away team able to travel to more games, improve broadcast ratings by having most games in the same time zone and starting at consistent times, and playing a balanced schedule that most fairly judges which teams are the best teams.

After the regular season ends, the top team in each league would be awarded the pennant and 8 teams would advance to a postseason tournament. This would be the top two teams from each of the two leagues, and two wild card teams from among the third place finishers.  The teams would be seeded to play in a best-of-5 quarterfinal series, with the winners advancing to a best-of-7 semifinal series, and a best-of-7 World Series.  MLB Second Division would also play a similar postseason tournament.

Here is what the two divisions would like in the first season of the promotion and relegation model:

MLB First Division

EAST CENTRAL WEST
Atlanta Chicago Cubs Arizona
Baltimore Cleveland Houston
Boston Colorado Los Angeles Angels
New York Mets Detroit Los Angeles Dodgers
New York Yankees Kansas City Oakland
Toronto Milwaukee San Francisco
Tampa Bay Pittsburgh Seattle
Washington St. Louis Texas

MLB Second Division

EAST CENTRAL WEST
Buffalo Chicago White Sox Las Vegas
Charlotte Cincinnati Mexico City
Miami Columbus Monterrey
Montreal Indianapolis Oklahoma City
Norfolk Louisville Portland
Orlando Minnesota San Antonio
Philadelphia Nashville San Diego
San Juan New Orleans Vancouver

Promotion and Relegation

Most people are most familiar with promotion and relegation from the English football league system.  Each season, the three worst teams from the Premier League (the first division) are relegated to the EFL Championship (the second division), and three teams from the EFL Championship are promoted to the premier league (in this case, the top two teams from the regular season and the winner of a playoff among the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th place teams). Across the world’s sports leagues there are different models of how many teams are promoted and relegated, and what determines which teams will be promoted and relegated.

My plan would have three teams promoted and three teams relegated each season.  1 team from each league in MLB First Division – East, Central, and West – is relegated and replaced by a team from the respective leagues in MLB Second Division. Instead of simply relegating the team with the worst regular season record from each league, instead the teams relegated would have the worst cumulative record over two seasons.  I propose this rule for three reasons:

  1. No team will end up being relegated for having just one bad season. They’ll have a chance to prove themselves the next season.
  2. Since every team will want avoid relegation by having a strong 2-year cumulative record, a team will have the incentive to try to win every game possible, even late in the season when the team’s been eliminated from postseason contention.
  3. A team promoted from the lower division will have a minimum of two seasons at the higher division, giving them a year to find their footing in the new division, and avoid teams popping back and forth between divisions each year.

Promotion would involve simply advancing the pennant winner from each second division league to the first division league.  I tried to come up with a way that the second division playoffs could be used to determine some or all of the teams promoted, but strictly basing it on the best performances in the regular season seems most fair to me.

Minor Leagues

Even with 48 teams playing in the Major Leagues, there would still be a lot of Minor League teams and each MLB team could affiliate with at least 4 MiLB teams.  Ultimately though, I think it would be imperative to rethink the farm system and expand the promotion and relegation system.  There are enough cities currently at the Triple A and Double A levels of Minor League Baseball that could create a 3rd and 4th division of 24 teams each.  Expanding the promotion and relegation system would make competitive professional baseball available in cities across America. The Minor Leagues could be streamlined then to just two affiliated teams per MLB team: one for development, and one as reserves.

With 48 (or 96) teams, obviously the best players will cluster in the MLB First Division. Teams in lower divisions will try to scout and acquire players to improve themselves and get promoted to a higher division. But there would also be opportunities for teams in the lower division to improve their team and/or financial status by trading their best players or selling their contracts to top division teams.  I would also suggest that MLB adopt player loans, where teams that have a player under contract can temporarily have that player play for a team in another division.  This would be a benefit for top division teams who have young talent that they want to get more playing time, but a team in a lower division going through a rebuilding period may also keep their best players happy by allowing them to play for a more competitive team.

 ***

I won’t go into in this post, but for this new model to work, other things that will need to be adjusted include free agency eligibility rules, the amateur draft, territorial rights, and even MLBs antitrust exemption.  And I’m sure that there are hundreds of little things I’ve overlooked.  Nevertheless, I think this would be an effective approach for MLB to consider in growing baseball and making it more competitive in more cities throughout the continent, while establishing a means to continue to grow into the future.

Major League Baseball Expansion: A 32 Team Option


The prospect of expanding Major League Baseball from 30 to 32 teams has become increasingly likely in recent years, with even MLB Commisioner Rob Manfred suggesting  potential expansion cities.  Baseball writers such as Jayson Stark for the Athletic (the article is behind a paywall, but is outlined on SBNation) and Tracy Ringolsby for Baseball America have written about what a 32-team baseball league might look like.  Since I like thinking about these things, I figured I’d take a stab at where MLB may expand, and how that could change MLB for the better through realignment.

A History of Growth and Change in Major League Baseball

Baseball historians recognize the National League – founded in 1876 with 8 teams – as the first true Major League.  For its first quarter century, the National League fluctuated between 6 and 12 teams, with many teams relocating, folding, or being expelled over time.  The NL faced competition from three competing Major Leagues during that time, but was able to survive while other leagues collapsed until the birth of the American League in 1901. The NL and AL champions met in the first World Series in 1903, but perhaps even more remarkable is that year was the first in an incredible string of consistency where the two leagues operated with 8 teams each with no relocations, withdrawals, or expansion.

For 50 years the same 16 teams played in the same 10 cities in the Northeast and Midwest.  By the 1950s, growing cities – especially in the West – were frustrated by their inability to crack the MLB hegemony, while the teams in the older cities found themselves struggling with attendance. The Boston Braves finally broke the seal, moving to Milwaukee to start the 1953 season. The St. Louis Browns moved to Baltimore to become the Orioles in 1954, and the Philadelphia Athletics ventured west to Kansas City in 1955.  The biggest shocker came in 1958 when the New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers – two of the National Leagues most popular and successful teams in America’s most populous city – packed up for San Francisco and Los Angeles, respectively.

The desire for New York to have another team alongside the Yankees, and for cities like Minneapolis, Denver, and Toronto to get their first major league teams, lead to the announcement of the Continental League in 1959.  This third league never played a game, but convinced the National and American Leagues to create 8 expansion teams over the next decade.  The American League expanded first in 1961, putting a team in the Los Angeles market, and new Senators team in Washington, to replace the old Senators who were simultaneously moving to Minnesota to become the Twins.  The National League followed suit in 1962 with expansion teams in Houston and New York.

The peripatetic Braves left Milwaukee for Atlanta in 1966, and the Athletics completed their trip across the continent by moving from Kansas City to Oakland in 1968.  Each league expanded by two teams again in 1969.  The National Leagued added teams in San Diego, and the first Canadian franchise in Montreal.  Meanwhile, the American League returned baseball to Kansas City and a new team in Seattle.  In 1969, the two leagues were also split into two divisions each with a playoff series added before the World Series.

The Seattle Pilots lasted only one year before packing up to fill the baseball gap in Milwaukee and becoming the Brewers.  Washington once again lost their Senators who resurfaced in Texas as the Rangers in 1972.  The American League expanded once again in 1977 to 14 teams, giving Seattle a second chance and breaking into the Canadian market in Toronto.  The National League chose not to expand, and the leagues remained unbalanced for the next 16 seasons.

In 1993, the National League finally grew to 14 teams by expanding to Miami and Denver.  The following season the leagues were split into three divisions adding a Wild Card and another round of playoffs, albeit a player’s strike canceled the 1994 postseason, so the expanded playoffs would debut until 1995.  In 1997, Major League Baseball scheduled interleague games between American and National league teams for the first time.  The following season, MLB decided to add two more teams, one to each league, with the NL getting a team in Phoenix and the AL entering Tampa Bay.  This would mean that each league would have an odd number of teams – 15 each – but since MLB wasn’t ready to schedule interleague games every day of the season, Commissioner Bud Selig moved his team, the Milwaukee Brewers, from the AL to the NL.

The Montreal Expos struggled financially and with attendance after the 1994 strike, and MLB even took over the franchise.  In 2005, for the first time in 33 years a MLB team relocated,  coincidentally returning to the last city that lost a franchise, and the Expos became the Washington Nationals. In 2012, MLB allowed a second Wild Card team to qualify for the postseason, adding another round to the playoffs.  And in 2013, MLB decided that they were ready to schedule interleague games every day and balance the two leagues at 15 teams apiece.  But instead of returning Milwaukee to the American League, they moved the Houston Astros from the NL to the AL.

And that is where we stand today…

25 North American Cities That Could Host an Expansion Team

Here are 25 potential candidates for MLB expansion.  For each city listed, I took into account the city and surround region’s population, the history of baseball in that city, and other big sports teams currently based in those cities.

  • Buffalo -The home to the NFL Bills and NHL Sabres for decades, Buffalo is still without a MLB team. The city was home to three different major league baseball teams – all named the Bisons – in the early days of pro baseball, most recently in the Federal League in 1915-15. Even in the minor leagues, the Bisons have been enormously popular. In the late 80s the team outdrew some major league teams, and their ballpark built at that time remains the largest in the minors. The ballpark was built to be enlarged if Buffalo got an expansion team, but the 1993 expansion passed over Buffalo and the city received even less consideration in 1998. With other markets growing more swiftly, Buffalo’s best chance for an expansion team seems to have passed but it remains a dark horse candidate.
  • Charlotte – A growing market that is already the nation’s 17th largest city, Charlotte is home to the NFL’s Panthers, NBA’s Hornets, and NHL’s Hurricanes.  The Charlotte Knights have been a successful Triple-A team since 1993 and recently moved into a new ballpark (albeit one too small to expand to MLB size).  Charlotte is also located in a part of the country that’s quite a distance from existing MLB markets.  Assuming that a location for a new ballpark could be found, Charlotte would be a front-runner for MLB expansion.
  • Columbus – The 14th largest city in the United States (and the largest city in Ohio) is home to the NHL’s Blue Jackets and charter MLS club Crew SC, not to mention the Ohio State Buckeyes’ football team.  The Columbus Clippers have been a successful Triple-A team since 1977. The biggest challenge for Columbus is that Ohio is already divided between two baseball fan bases that were established over a century ago.
  • Havana – This one is a long shot due to political realities, but more plausible since the restoration of diplomatic relations between the US and Cuba.  Havana is home to more than 2 million baseball-loving sports fans and the 55,000-seat Estadio Latinoamericano has a larger capacity than any MLB ballpark except Dodger Stadium.  The Havana Sugar Kings were a successful minor league team in the 1940s and 1950s prior to the Cuban Revolution.  Perhaps sometime in the distant future, Havana will have a place among North American ballclubs once again.
  • Indianapolis – The capital of Indiana has been home to the Indianapolis Indians, the second oldest minor league franchise, since 1902. Major League teams played there in the 19th century, and today the city is home to the NFL’s Colts, the Pacers and Fever basketball teams, and the world-famous Indianapolis Motor Speedway. An Indy MLB club would slot into natural rivalries with teams in neighboring Ohio and Illinois. Indianapolis is the 16th most populous city in the US, so really it would come down to the ability to finance a major league stadium.
  • Las Vegas – Once considered a tourist destination, Las Vegas is one of the most rapidly growing American cities. The NHL’s Golden Knights were an immediate success in their first season, and the NFL’s Raiders are scheduled to move to Vegas in 2020. The big question is if there’s enough of a permanent population to come out and support a MLB team over 162 games. A new ballpark is under construction for the city’s AAA team meaning the money to build or expand a ballpark to MLB standards (which almost certainly would need to be in a climate-controlled building with a movable roof) will not be available in the near future. Legalized gambling is obviously no longer scaring away sports teams from Las Vegas, but MLB tends to be more conservative in regards to gambling.
  • Louisville – Hillerich & Bradsby have been producing the famous Louisville Slugger but the city hasn’t had a major league team since the NL contracted after the 1899 season. Louisville is the 29th largest city in the US and the fourth largest city with no big league teams. Louisville could develop a swift rivalry with the Cincinnati Reds if they gained an expansion team.
  • Mexico City – The largest city in North America looks like an obvious market for MLB to want to break into. The problem is, Mexico City doesn’t have a lot of history of supporting baseball where fútbol is king. The city would also be a long road trip away from existing MLB cities, and the value of the peso to the dollar could make it challenging to compete financially. MLB still might want see if can find a fan base in the city (and be Mexico’s team by proxy) but it’s not a slam dunk.
  • Monterrey – This Northern Mexican city is less populous than the capital, but it has the advantage of being closer to MLB teams in the US, and in the heart of the Mexican region that most actively supports baseball. The Sultanes are one of the most successful teams in the Mexican League, and their home, the 22,000-seat Estadio de Baseball, has hosted regular season MLB games. The city tried to purchase the Expos in 2003, so it may be time for Monterrey to get a MLB franchise.
  • Montreal – The city in Quebec was home to successful minor league franchises dating back to the 1800s, and in 1969 became home to MLB’s first team in Canada. Since the Expos left for Washington after the 2004 season, there have been calls to return baseball to Montreal. An expansion team would face the same problems as the Expos, though. Stade Olympique is a money pit that was never a good ballpark and hasn’t aged well, so financing a new stadium would be key. The exchange rates of the Canadian dollar also make it a challenge for a Montreal team to compete for the best players. Still, every other city that lost an MLB team after 1900 has been able to return to MLB, so Montreal has to be in the running as an expansion favorite.
  • Nashville – The Music City is another rapidly growing city, and its right in a part of the country where there isn’t an existing big league baseball team nearby, so it could be a good place for MLB to break ground.  The city is currently home to the Tennessee Titans of the NFL and the Predators of the NHL, with a MLS team coming soon.  The Nashville Sounds have been the city’s minor league team since 1978, playing at the Triple A level since 1985.  The team recently moved into a new stadium with a capacity of 10,000 which may be a roadblock to building a MLB stadium in the city in the near future.
  • New Orleans – This historic and unique port city is home to two big league teams: NFL’s Saints and NBA’s Pelicans. It’s also the largest city along the Gulf Coast in a big gap between MLB teams in Tampa Bay and Houston. New Orleans has been home to a Triple-A team since 1993, but would fans come out on soupy summer nights to support a MLB team? The Superdome would be inappropriate to retrofit for baseball so the biggest obstacle would be funding and finding a place for a retractable roof ballpark.
  • New York City – Wait, you may be thinking, New York already has two teams! This is true, but in the past it was home to three teams and could host more. Consider London, England, a city with a similar population to New York currently has six football clubs in the Premier League. NBA’s Nets have put Brooklyn back on the sporting map, so maybe it’s time to bring baseball back to Brooklyn? Another possibility in the New York metropolitan area is Northern New Jersey, a densely populated region that is already home to the two “New York” football teams and the NHL Devils.
  • Norfolk – The Hampton Roads area of Virginia is the largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States that does not already have a big league team in any sport.  Norfolk and Virginia Beach are close enough to Washington and Baltimore to build a rivalry, but far enough away to establish their own fanbase.  On the downside, the population is spread out over a wide area and a large military presence may mean that people are too transient to establish a longtime fandom.
  • Oklahoma City – America’s 27th largest city recently entered into big league sports when the Seattle Supersonics of the NBA relocated and began playing as the Oklahoma City Thunder in 2008.  The city has been home to a Triple-A team since the 1960s and also hosts several annual collegiate tournaments.  Like Charlotte and Nashville, Oklahoma City is distant from existing MLB cities presenting the opportunity to tap a fresh market of fans.
  • Orlando – Like Las Vegas, Orlando was once only thought of as a tourist resort, but has rapidly grown into a major city. The city is home to the Magic of the NBA and has the Orlando City SC MLS team has quickly gained a devoted following.  Orlando also hosts college bowl games and the NFL’s Pro Bowl.  Florida’s other two baseball teams have struggled at attracting fans, and with transient populations and blistering hot summers, a third Florida team may be a tough sell. On the other hand, if the Rays can’t find a good place for a new stadium in Tampa Bay, Orlando might be an inviting alternative.
  • Portland – The Rose City is growing in population and prestige and seems a natural destination for a new MLB club. The MLB’s current most isolated team, the Seattle Mariners, would be an automatic natural rival. The NBA’s Trailblazers have called Portland home since the 1970s and the MLS Timbers and NWSL Thorns soccer teams are among the top draws in their respective leagues. Soccer is so popular in fact that the long-time home of the city’s Triple A team was converted to soccer specifications.  There hasn’t been a minor league team in Portland since 2010, although a Single A team plays in the suburbs.  The question is, will Portland welcome a new baseball team at the major league level, and where would they play?
  • Sacramento – The capital of California is overshadowed by the Golden State’s other large cities, but ranking as the 35th largest city in the U.S. it is more populous than almost half of the existing MLB cities.  The Kings have played in the NBA since 1985 and the city has hosted a Triple A team since 2000. The biggest obstacle to Sacramento as an expansion city is that two teams already play in the Bay Area just two hours away.  But if the Athletics continue to struggle in Oakland, Sacramento could become their new home.
  • Salt Lake City – This is the smallest city to make this list, but the greater Salt Lake City metropolitan area has the advantage of no competing markets being anywhere remotely close to it.  Thus Salt Lake City has been able to be be to the Jazz in the NBA and Real Salt Lake in MLS.  Salt Lake City have had several teams in the Pacific Coast League over the past century, the most recent playing since 1994.  The Bees play in the largest stadium in the PCL and have set attendance records for that league.  Still, I’d consider Salt Lake City a longshot for MLB expansion.
  • San Antonio – America’s 7th largest city is home to a successful NBA franchise, the Spurs.  Surprisingly, despite the city’s size, San Antonio does not have a top level minor league team, with the Missions currently operating in Double-A baseball.  That will change in 2019 when the Triple-A Colorado Springs franchise will relocate to San Antonio and adopt the Missions nickname.  This means it may take some time for San Antonio to ready to make another jump to MLB level.  Austin, Texas, while not as large as San Antonio, is the 11th largest city in the United States, and the largest city without a big league team in any sport, so it may get the jump on San Antonio.
  • San Jose – Much like Sacramento, San Jose is a large city attempting to define it’s own sporting identity in a state that already has five major league baseball teams. The NHL Sharks and the MLS Earthquakes already call the tenth largest city in the U.S. home, and the NFL’s “San Francisco” 49ers play a few minutes away in Santa Clara. The Athletics tried to move to San Jose but were legally blocked by the San Francisco Giants.  If they won’t give the A’s permission to move into San Jose, it’s unlikely that the city would get approval for an expansion team.
  • San Juan – The capital of Puerto Rico is home to nearly 400,000 people and the center of an urban area of over 2 million.  Puerto Rican players have excelled in Major League Baseball and the island’s World Baseball Classic team has also performed well.  Major League Baseball has expressed a lot of interest in San Juan, hosting regular season games there, including several “home” games for the Montreal Expos in 2003 and 2004.  The Expos ended up moving to Washington instead of San Juan. The economic realities of Puerto Rico – especially as it continues to recover from Hurricane Maria – will mean that a MLB franchise will not be a priority for San Juan for the foreseeable future.
  • Santo Domingo – Baseball is the most popular sport in the Dominican Republic, and many Dominicans have become major league stars. The nation’s capital and largest city – which also the largest city in the Caribbean – is home to nearly a million people.  But much like Puerto Rico, the economic realities of the Dominican Republic and competing financially with teams in the United states would seem to make expansion to Santo Domingo to be frivolous at this time.
  • Vancouver – Canada’s third largest city, and only major city on the West Coast, is also the fifth most densely populated major city in North America.  Vancouver is home to the Canadian Football League’s BC Lions, the NHL’s Canucks, and the Whitecaps FC in MLS. The city also hosted the Winter Olympics in 2010 and the Women’s World Cup final in 2015.  While home to a Single Season A team in minor league baseball now, Vancouver was home to a Triple-A team from 1978 to 1999. Like Portland, Vancouver would be a natural rival to the Seattle Mariners.

Realignment and scheduling

Once two more cities are selected, then Major League Baseball would have to decide where to fit them in the existing league structure and how to adjust the season schedule for the new teams.  Most likely each league would get one new team to bring them up to 16 teams each, and then those 16 teams would be aligned in four regional divisions of four teams each.

But I hope not.  The tiny divisions of four teams will inevitably increase the number mediocre teams winning their and going to the postseason while more talented second place teams in other divisions will stay home.  The necessity of an unbalanced schedule in divisional play will also increase the uncertainty of what teams are really the best and which ones just have easier schedules.

What I would propose instead is to bring an end to the American and National Leagues as we know them.  They’d be replaced by four leagues of eight teams aligned by regional proximity.  Interleague play would end and the eight teams would face one another 22 games each over a 154-game season.

There would be several advantages to this realignment:

  1. Long road trips over multiple time zones cause a lot of wear and tear for the players contributing to reduced performance and injury.  Regional leagues would reduce traveling and make for happier and healthier ballplayers.
  2. Regional rivalries (such as Red Sox-Yankees, Cubs-Cardinals, and Giants-Dodgers) are among the biggest draws in MLB.  The regionally aligned leagues would allow for more of games of these existing rivalries while also creating new rivalries among teams that share a city, state, or region.
  3. The closer proximity of all the teams in the league means that fans who follow their teams to road games will have the opportunity to go to more games close by, increasing overall attendance.
  4. There would no longer be road trips to distant time zones, meaning East Coast fans would no longer have to stay up past midnight watching their team play West Coast teams, and West Coast fans won’t have their team’s road games starting before they leave work. More consistent start times would improve broadcast ratings.
  5. The balanced schedule would make it far more clear to judge which teams are the best in each league while maintaining some mystery of how they’ll match up in the postseason.

Abandoning the league structure seems like a radical break from tradition but I’d argue that the National and American League differences have been eroding for some time. The advent of interleague play in 1997 ended the separation of the two leagues for good, and now interleague games are played everyday of the season. The movement of the Brewers and Astros between leagues also chipped away at that history. In fact, the two leagues ceased to exist as separate entities in 1999. The only difference now is that the AL has a designated hitter and the NL doesn’t. It’s long past time to adopt a consistent rule that all pitchers must hit or all teams may use a DH (although there is another alternative).

My proposal offers a lot for traditionalists. Eight team leagues playing a 154-game schedule was the standard until 1960. No interleague games in the regular season is also tradition and my realignment would preserve the best of interleague play (Mets-Yankees, Cubs-White Sox, et al) while eliminating yawners like Twins-Padres or Mariners-Pirates. But mostly I think this alignment sets up the future of Major League Baseball for new traditions, new rivalries, and new pennant races that will make baseball history.

Here’s how I’d align the teams in the four new leagues, using Montreal and Charlotte as the expansion teams. Different expansion teams would require tweaking the leagues a bit, but it would be the same basic structure.  In order to preserve the Cubs-Cardinals rivalry, I placed St. Louis in the Lakes League even though Cincinnati would fit better geographically, but I think the Cardinals and the Reds would not be adversely affected by this alignment.

Northeastern League
(3 AL, 4 NL, 1 expansion)

Baltimore
Boston
Montreal
New York
New York
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Washington

Lakes League
(5 AL, 3 NL)

Chicago Cubs
Chicago White Sox
Cleveland
Detroit
Milwaukee
Minnesota
St. Louis
Toronto

Southern League
(4 AL, 3 NL, 1 expansion)

Atlanta
Charlotte
Cincinnati
Houston
Kansas City
Miami
Tampa Bay
Texas

Western League
(3 AL, 5 NL)

Arizona
Colorado
Los Angeles Angels
Los Angeles Dodgers
Oakland
San Diego
San Francisco
Seattle

Postseason

A purist would insist that only the four league champions qualify for the postseason or maybe the top eight teams, but the larger postseason tournament has been a trend for some time and I don’t think it’s going away. So, I propose that the top 3 teams of each league advance to the playoffs for a total of 12 teams. This would be 2 more teams than are in the playoffs now, while the number of teams that don’t get into the postseason remains the same at 20.

The first place teams are seeded 1-4 by regular season record, second place teams are seeded 5-8, and third place teams are seeded 9-12. By virtue of having the best record over a grueling 154 game season, the first place teams will be awarded their league’s pennant, reviving the tradition practiced from 1876 to 1968. The pennant winners will also be rewarded with a bye in the opening round of the playoffs.

So the playoffs would go as follows:

  • Opening round, best of five series (5 v 12, 6 v 11, 7 v 10, and 8 v 9)
  • Quarterfinals, best of five series (survivors of opening round reseeded so it’s 1 v 8, 2 v 7, 3 v 6, and 4 v 5)
  • Semifinals, best of seven series
  • World Series, best of seven series

So that’s my plan for expanding Major League Baseball to 32 teams and rethinking the paradigm of how top-level baseball is contested. But I have another plan in which baseball would expand to 48 teams, with the possibility to grow even further. But for that, you will have to wait until next week.

Video Replay in Sports


This year the FIFA World Cup is using video assistant referees (VAR) to correct or confirm questionable calls made by the referee on the field.  VAR has already played an instrumental role in several matches, including both of Monday’s Group B games where the referee reviewed plays in the 90th minute of Spain vs. Morocco and Iran vs. Portugal.  One of the joys of soccer that distinguishes it from other team sports is that the clock never stops and excepting the oddity of stoppage time, 90 minutes on the clock is generally close to 90 minutes of real time. So it’s a bit of a drag to see the referee staring at a video monitor for several minutes at the height of a game.

FIFA is not the first sporting body to adopt video replay review. The NFL started using replay review in 1986, adopting their current system in 1998, and many other sports leagues have followed suit. Major League Baseball began using instant replay on a limited number of types of plays in 2008 and then expanded it to greater usage in 2014.  Obviously, it can be very exciting when a call is reversed in favor of your team, especially in a big game, but these instant replay reviews can be interminable, delaying the game and sucking momentum from the action while the officials watch the clips over and over. (I speak for myself in not enjoying reviews, as my son enjoys going to the MLB sight to watch reviews from various different games).

Now, I’m not a Luddite opposed to the use of technology.  There is a place for replay reviews and I’m certain many games in the past would’ve been improved if umpire’s miscues were overruled. Who can forget these famous blown calls in MLB history, all of which were followed with apologies from the umpires in post-game interviews?

1996: Derek Jeter awarded a home run in a playoff game when a fan reaches over the wall to catch the ball.

1999: Jose Offerman called out despite Chuck Knoblauch failing to tag him.

2010: Armando Galarraga’s perfect game is ruined when the umpire inexplicably calls a base runner safe.

(Note that 2 of these 3 plays benefit the Yankees in line with the statistic that 66% of blown calls in MLB history favor the Yankees)

I think there is a place for video replay review when an umpire or a referee makes a call that anyone watching the game on tv (or after an initial replay) is glaringly wrong.  I don’t think it benefits the game when “too close to call” plays are analyzed for several minutes at multiple speeds from different angles to see if the point of a baserunner’s spikes poked the base milliseconds before or after a fielder brushed his uniform with the lace of his glove.

So I propose that all of these sports should use video replay review with a time limit.  The referee would have 30 seconds or 45 seconds tops to watch a replay and confirm or overturn a call.  If a decision cannot be reached in that time, the call on the field stands.  I think that would bring the full benefit of video technology to making sure that sporting games are free of the most glaring errors with out falling down the rabbit hole of full-on forensic analysis of a play that drains that urgency from a game.

On the other hand (pun intended), if there’s no statute of limitations on video replay reviews, I’d like VAR to go back to 2002 and evaluate this play.

Book Review: Amazin’ Again: How the 2015 New York Mets Brought the Magic Back to Queens by Greg W. Prince


Author: Greg W. Prince
TitleAmazin’ Again: How the 2015 New York Mets Brought the Magic Back to Queens
Publication Info: Sports Publishing (2016)
Previously Read By Same Author: Faith and Fear in Flushing 
Summary/Review:

2015 was a special season for the New York Mets and Mets’ fans, not just because they won the National League pennant, but because of so many unique aspects and players that made it unlike any season in the team’s history.  Prince, one-half of the team at the magnificent Faith and Fear in Flushing blog, relives the 2015 season month-by-month, game-by-game, and sometimes even inning-by-inning and pitch-by-pitch, offering his wizened and humorous perspective.  While a regular blogger writing about the Mets, make no mistake that this is a book by a journalist or a sports writer, this is a fan’s book.  Prince writes about watching games from his seat at Citi Field or on tv and offers many great tidbits of Mets history and the fan’s zeitgeist to embellish the narrative.  If there’s anything wrong with this book it’s that it has the same sad ending as the Met’s 2015 season (Prince wisely does not dwell on the World Series).  Let’s hope that Prince will have reason to write another book with a happier ending in the near future.
Favorite Passages:

Some combination of appreciation for the Met who wanted to be a Met so bad he wept when comprehending he might be something else and the intoxication we felt for having just gotten Cespedes turned the shirt-receivers their own kind of emotional. When they got a load of Flores in his first at-bat since the trade that wasn’t, they rose and applauded. Thank you, Wilmer. Thank you for being here. Thank you for being you. This sort of gratitude isn’t readily associated with the Mets fan species, but standing ovations now followed Wilmer Flores around like a loyal pup. He couldn’t step into the batter’s box or approach a ground ball without his every movement causing a commendatory commotion. Driving Juan Uribe home with the first run of the night in the fourth made him only more beloved.

Four National relievers. Three Met runs. One hellacious fist pump out of Wright after he crossed the plate. Yes, it seemed to shout, this is what all that stretching and exercising the back was for … this is what I signed that long-term deal for … this is what it’s all frigging about. Even when filling David Wright’s thought bubble, I can’t imagine The Captain cursing.

If you came to the Mets later in life—by marriage, by immigration, by one day looking up at the television and deciding that team on the screen was somehow for you—then your elation is every bit as earned as mine. The Mets may extract blood, sweat and tears from you, but you don’t have to fill out a form to prove your loyalty (they tried that with the “True New Yorker” marketing gambit of 2014 and it backfired blazingly). Adult conversions are welcome. They’re admirable. We know you had your choice of baseball teams and we thank you for flying with us.

Recommended booksBad Guys Won by Jeff Pearlman, If at First by Keith Hernandez and Mike Bryan,  Faithful by Stewart O’Nan and Stephen King
Rating: ***1/2

The Designated Hitter in Major League Baseball: A Solution 


Recently, there’s been discussion in Major League Baseball about expanding the Designated Hitter rule to the National League. The DH has been the subject of endless debate and speculation since it was introduced as an experiment to in the American League in 1973. While the AL adopted the DH rule permanently, the NL has resisted the DH and so for more than four decades the two leagues have played by different rules. In the AL, a designated hitter bats in place of the pitcher while in the NL the pitcher bats for himself. 

I believe that I have come up with a brilliant solution to resolve the DH debate for good, but before I reveal it, let’s sum up the arguments for against the DH. Arguments for the DH include:

  • It adds spark to the offense, and fans like a lot of offense. 
  • Conversely, pitchers can’t hit and fan wants to see any easy out. 
  • Allows players who are talented hitters but weak fielders a place in the game. 
  • Additionally, aging sluggers whose defensive skills are eroding can extend their careers a few years by becoming a DH.
  • Pitchers get injured while batting and base running. 

Arguments against the DH include:

  • Tradition and history. There’s a beautiful symmetry to a game with 9 innings, 9 fielders, and 9 batters. 
  • One of the biggest complaints about baseball is that games are too long. American League games on average are longer than National League games and the DH is a major reason for that. 
  • “Pitchers can’t hit” is not an absolute. Pitchers throughout history have a hit and a wise GM would gain a competitive advantage by having their organization develop and maintain pitchers’ hitting skills. 
  • An aging slugger who extends his career at DH often does so by taking the roster spot of a younger, more versatile player. 
  • Injuries happen all the time, on and off the field and the DH doesn’t stop that. If anything, cross training to pitch, bat, & run helps prepare the body to resist injury. 

My preference is that the DH be eliminated and the game be returned to its purer roots where all players compete in the field and at the plate. But after more than 40 years and endless arguments, I accept that the DH is here to stay. I also believe that the two leagues should follow the same rules. 

So what is my solution? This will initially sound strange but bear with me because I think it’s the perfect compromise. All 30 teams will be able to use the designated hitter, but only on odd numbered days. 

What this means:

  • In games played on odd numbered days (ex: May 1, 3, 5…) all Major League teams may have a DH bat in place of the pitcher. 
  • In games played on even numbered days (ex: May 2, 4, 6…) all Major League teams play by the traditional rules in which the pitcher must bat to remain in the game. 
  • If a game is postponed it will follow the rules of the day the game is actually played. 
  • If a game is suspended and continues on another day it will use the same rules the game started with. 
  • Both games of a double header follow the same rules.  
  • The odd/even rules will also apply to all postseason games. 

Why this works:

  • Just like under current system approximately half the games in a MLB season will be played using the DH rule, and the other half will follow traditional rules. 
  • Unlike the current system, both leagues will be using the same rules. 
  • Fans of the DH and fans of traditional baseball will have plenty of opportunities to see each style no matter which team they follow. In fact it would be interesting if one style of baseball would gain higher ticket sales/TV ratings, although I expect the difference would be negligible. 
  • All teams would get experience in both types of baseball. Pitchers would have to know how to hit, sluggers would have to know how to field, at least half of the time. The imbalance of interleague games where teams are accustomed to playing under different rules would be negated. 
  • Hitters with weak or deteriorating defensive skills would still be able to use the DH to extend their career. In fact, the number of teams competing to offer then contracts would double. As long as they can play half their games as DH, and half as a fielder or pinch hitter, they should continue to be an asset to their teams. 
  • The full-time DH would no longer exist, but this would not be as big a problem as it appears. Most people think of the DH and think of the likes of Frank Thomas, Edgar Martinez, or David Ortiz who played the majority of their career as DH. In fact, in 2015 only 8 American League teams had a player appear in more than half the games as DH: Morales (KC) – 141, Fielder (TEX) – 139, Gattis (HOU) – 136, Butler (SEA) – 136, Rodriguez (NYY) – 136, Ortiz (BOS) – 134, Martinez (DET) – 104, and Encarnacion (TOR) – 85. The remaining teams rotated players among defensive positions and the DH, and would be able to continue to do so under my plan. Most of the players listed above would have no problem playing 30-50 games in the field and the rest at DH. So the change for the AL wouldn’t be drastic while opening up opportunities in the NL. 

So that’s my plan. It’s a bit unconventional but I think it will work. Let me know if you agree in the comments below. Or if you have modifications that would make this an even more effective resolution to the DH, let me know those too. And if you think this is a bad idea but have an alternate solution you think would work, I’d love to hear it. 

Major League Baseball Postseason Preferences & Predictions


Baseball’s postseason starts tonight, and so I’m going to run through which teams I want to win and which teams I will expect to win (likely not the same teams, as I do root for underdogs, but know that they rarely win).

Preferences

Wild Card Round

Yankees vs. Astros – I’m tired of seeing the Yankees win things, and even if winning the Wild Card playoff doesn’t mean much in the long run, it would put them in position to potentially win something more.  So I’m firmly behind the Astros here even if I still think it’s weird for them to play in the American League.

Pirates vs. Cubs – From the pure underdog point of view, I should pick the Cubs to go all the way but since I have a horse in this race the Cubs can wait another year.  I’ll pick the Pirates to go on to the NLCS since it will mean shorter trips for my team. By the way, it’s outrageous that these two teams with the 2nd & 3rd best records in baseball this season are forced to play this one game ‘coin flip’ playoff.  MLB really needs to work out their backasswards playoff system.

Divisional Series

Blue Jays vs. Rangers – The Blue Jays are an exciting team from a congenial country to the North.  And they have R.A. Dickey.  The Rangers have never excited me.   Blue Jays for the win.

Royals vs. Astros – I enjoyed the Royals return to greatness last season and hope that they have a chance to go all the way one year soon.

Cardinals vs. Pirates – I’m even more tired of seeing Cardinals win things that I am of seeing the Yankees win things.  Pirates (or Cubs) all the way!

Dodgers vs. Mets – My favorite team in baseball versus my third least favorite.  Easy choice!  Let’s go Mets!!!

League Championship Series

Blue Jays vs. Royals – I kind of think of these teams as being very genial, so this will be a most polite (and blue) series.  I give the Blue Jays a slight nod due to their entertaining style of play and Dickey-ness.

Mets vs. Pirates – Once again, I can root for no one else to win but the Mets!

World Series

Blue Jays vs. Mets – Oh how I’d love to see this World Series play out, with the Mets winning of course.  But really, I’ll take a Mets victory over any AL opponent.

Predictions

And here are my colder, lest fannish picks for how actual postseason outcomes will play out.

Wild Card Round

Yankees beat Astros
Cubs beat Pirates

Divisional Series

Blue Jays 3, Rangers 0
Royals 3, Yankees 1
Cardinals 3, Cubs 2
Mets 3, Dodgers 1

League Championship Series

Blue Jays 4, Royals 2
Cardinals 4, Mets 1 :(

World Series

Blue Jays 4, Cardinals 3

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Major League Baseball Playoffs


I don’t have much rooting interest in this year’s MLB postseason, but I’ve gone ahead and ranked teams from “most like to see win the World Series” to “least like to win the World Series.”

  • Pittsburgh
  • Kansas City
  • Washington
  • Detroit
  • Oakland
  • Baltimore
  • San Francisco
  • Los Angeles Angels
  • Los Angeles Dodgers
  • St. Louis

Probably the most compelling World Series matchup for me is Pittsburgh vs. Kansas City, since both teams struggled for so long trying to play in small markets against big money opponents. It’s also a flashback to the 70s & 80s when the Pirates and Royals were postseason regulars, although they never matched up in the World Series.  A Washington-Baltimore World Series would also be an exciting matchup for the Chesapeake region who haven’t had much to cheer for in recent decades.  I’m disappointed that the Cardinals and Dodgers are facing one another in the NLDS because I’d like to see them both eliminated as soon as possible.


Okay, so now that I’ve determined what I liked to see happen (that is, underdogs reign), here’s my predictions for what will really happen.

COIN FLIP GAME

  • Pittsburgh defeats San Francisco
  • Oakland defeats Kansas City

DIVISION SERIES

  • St. Louis defeats Los Angeles Dodgers
  • Washington defeats Pittsburgh
  • Detroit defeats Baltimore
  • Los Angeles Angels defeats Oakland

CHAMPIONSHIP SERIES

  • St. Louis defeats Washington
  • Detroit defeats Los Angeles Angels

WORLD SERIES

  • Detroit defeats St. Louis

Baseball Celebrity and the End of the Steroid Era


Last night’s Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the keystone of  shortstop Derek Jeter’s season-long retirement celebration. As things tend to go in the sports media coverage of Derek Jeter, it was a bit over the top.  Yet, nowhere among all the plaudits did anyone see fit to mention that Jeter is the last active superstar of the Steroids Era.

From roughly 1995 to 2003, Major League Baseball experienced the scandal of a great number of players using anabolic steroids, human growth hormone (HGH), amphetamines, and other performing enhancing drugs (PEDs).  The fact of the matter is that if a ballplayer played during this era, the odds are statistically in favor of him having used PEDs.  Some used PEDs when they were on the bubble of making it on a major league roster.  Some used them to recover from injury.  Some used them in their “walk years” to try to get a favorable contract as a free agent.  Some used them once and then never again.  Some built their careers around them.

The peak of Derek Jeter’s career coincided with the Steroid Era.  While he’s never tested positive for PEDs, the rosters of his team from that era are riddled with known users.  The win-at-all-costs owner of Jeter’s team sought out the top superstars of the time, many of whom were later documented as PED users such as Gary Sheffield, Jose Canseco, Roger Clemens, Jeremy Giambi, and Alex Rodriguez.  With a line-up of juicers, Jeter’s team won 4 out 5 World Series Championships.  PED use spread through Major League Baseball and entire teams instructed their players in their use in order to compete.

And yet with PED use so widespread, we are told by the sports media that Jeter never touched the stuff.  Even with the rest of the team juiced up and pressuring their teammates not to play “naked,” Jeter maintained a superhuman virtue.  Of course, his virtue was not strong enough for him to speak out against PED use and inspire his fellow players to play clean.  And even if Jeter did play clean during this era, he still benefited from his teammates using them.  How many times did he come to base with runners on base who would not have been there if they’d played clean?  How many of Jeter’s career hits came against mediocre relievers because the starting pitcher was knocked out the game after struggling against a lineup of juicers?

My point here is not to condemn Jeter.  Even if one filters through the glurge written about him, he appears to be a decent player, and he’s a talented ballplayer for any era.  If I were a Hall of Fame voter, he’d have my vote.  The point here is to challenge the media narrative that has framed the Steroid Era as a few villainous players who cheated, while the virtuous Jeter stood above it all and still won.  There are some players for whom the evidence that they used PEDs is as circumstantial as that which I outlined for Jeter (such as Jeff Bagwell and Mike Piazza), but sportswriters are attempting to punish them retroactively by not voting them into the Hall of Fame and otherwise sullying their reputations.  Nowhere in the Jeter versus the bad guys narrative is there any acknowledgment of the complicity of baseball team management, the sports media, and the fans.  And Jeter himself who would have to have known what was going on, and as I noted above, benefited from PED use regardless of whether he used them or not.  The scandal is not that a few players cheated, but that all of baseball allowed the rise of PEDs because they desired bigger, better, faster superstar baseball players.

It’s interesting to note that in the decade since Major League Baseball instituted more stringent restrictions on PEDS, we’ve seen the decline of the superstar ballplayer common during the Steroid Era.  Many teams now try a model of finding many players with complimentary skills and abilities to build a team (the “Moneyball” approach) as opposed to building around a slugger and a power pitcher, at least those that have won the World Series.  Boston won with a “bunch of idiots” and more recently with a group of mid-level free agent signings added to players rebounding from injury.  San Francisco won 2 out of 3 years with a team of “misfits and castoffs.”  The Cardinals maintain a top-shelf team year in, year out while remaining largely anonymous.  They did have superstar slugger Albert Pujols, but continue to win without him.

Perhaps as we say farewell to Derek Jeter, we can also say goodbye to the the Steroid Era and its cult of bigger, better, faster.  Perhaps now we admire someone for being a great ballplayer without having to pile on the plaudits (or when a human being inevitably fails, the insults).  Perhaps we will be able to enjoy baseball not as a display of exemplary individuals but as a game played by a team (even at an All-Star Game).  That is my hope going forward  as we can finally close the door on the Steroids Era.
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Red Sox are the 2013 World Series Champions


For the third time in ten years, the Red Sox are the World Series Champions.  I’ve watched the Red Sox play in four World Series in my lifetime, and although I rooted for the opposing team in 1986, I’ve been firmly behind the Red Sox in the most recent three.  The 2004 World Series saw the end of the drought of 86 years without a championship (despite coming close several times) and the 2007 team proved that it was not a fluke.  The 2013 championship seems all the more special because it proves the resilience of the team coming back from a losing season in 2012 and a bad finish the year before that.

I particularly enjoyed this season because my 6 y.o. son Peter is a big baseball fan and devoted to the Red Sox.  We attended five game this season – four at Fenway and one at Yankee Stadium – and the Red Sox won them all (Peter’s lifetime record is a remarkable 9-1).  We also listened to games as Peter drifted off to sleep each night, so I’ve found myself following the team and getting to know the players much better than I have in many years.  The World Series victory came the day before Halloween when Peter dressed as his favorite player, Stephen Drew, and two days before his 6th birthday.

On Saturday, I took Peter to see the Red Sox Rolling Rally in the morning and then we had his birthday party in the afternoon, perhaps the best day of his life.  The Duck Boat Parade was a joyous occasion, and it was great to see so many happy people filling the streets of Boston to celebrate just six months after the atrocities on Patriots Day.  While we watched from Tremont Street opposite Boston Common, there was a moving tribute to the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing on Boyslton Street.

Below are my pictures of the parade.  It was a fun day, and I hope we get to do it again.

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